Arduino is an open source user-friendly electronics platform for building digital devices and interactive objects that can sense and control physical devices.
Arduino is based on micro-controller designs and it provides sets of digital and analog input/output(I/O) pins,which can interface between various expansion boards and other circuits.It has 14 digital input/output pins of which 6 can be used as PWM ( Pulse Width Modulation) outputs, 6 analog input pins, 3 GND (ground pins), 1 Vin , a 5V pin, a 3.3V pin, a 16 MHZ ceramic resonator, a USB connection , an ICSP header and a reset button.
( All these pin numbers may vary from board to board. Here I’ve given a description about Arduino UNO ATMEGA 328p-pu ).
This board feature Serial Communication interfaces, including Universal Serial Communication (USB) on some models for uploading programs from ones personal computer or laptop.
For programming the micro-controllers , the Arduino project provides an Integrated Development Environment (IDE) based on a programming language named processing which is an open source computer programming language and IDE built for the electronic arts, media arts and visual design. Arduino board also supports C and C++ languages.
Arduino boards are able to read Inputs- light on sensor, IR sensor, Ultrasonic sensor, a finger on a button, or a Twitter message and turn it into an Output – activating a motor, turning on a LED, sensing an object etc.
Over the years Arduino has become the brain of thousands of projects, from a very simple everyday appliances to a freakish scientific gadgets .