In my last article I’ve already given a basic idea about Quad-copter,how it was invented, which concept takes it a further step and where it is being used.Now i’m gonna brief you how u can make it in your own home and the interesting fact is that it’s a fundamentally Bluetooth controlled Drone which can be controlled using an Android smart phone through it’s native app.
First of all you’ll need some important components in your tech bucket. The list as follows:-
2. Brush-less Motors (4 piece)
4.Electronic Speed Controller(ESC)
5.Flight Controller Board.
6.Power Distribution board:-
8. Arduino board
9.Lithium Polymer battery(Lipo battery)
10. Lipo battery Charger
11. Lipo battery alarm
14.Solder-iron for Soldering the wires.
Before giving any illustration about all these components all you need to know is Flight Dynamics
,which states that each Rotor produces both a trust and torque about it’s center of rotation,as well as a drag force opposite to the vehicle’s direction of flight . If all rotors are spinning at same angular velocity then rotors 1 & 3 rotating clockwise
and rotor 2 & 4
,the net aerodynamic Torque
and angular acceleration
about the Yaw axis is zero
and this is the reason we don’t need any tail Rotor
like Conventional helicopters
is induced by mismatching the balance Aerodynamic Torques.
Quadrotor yaw torque
Now the flying description about all these above mentioned components are given below.
1.FRAME:-It is the pedestal of a drone,made of carbon fiber material, which is very light weight and long-lasting but as it is very costly you can also use aluminum frame made by your own. Size can be 450mm, 350mm and 600mm for a norma
l drone. you can make it larger in size for that You’ve to use more efficient motors. Frame has Two modes + and X.
2. Brush-less Motors:- These are 3 Phase DC brushless synchronous motors,which indicates that the magnetic field produced by the stator and the magnetic field produced by the rotor twirls at the same frequency. These motors do n
ot experience the “slip” that is normally observed in induction motors as Brush-less motor is built with a permanent magnet rotor and wire wound stator poles.
These can have 930KV, 1000KV, 1200KV, 1400KV, 2200KV and operating voltage range between 7-14 Volt of 10,20, 30 and 40 Ampere Rate.
3.propellers:- 2 pairs of wings u need to fly a quad-copter,made of plastic. Each pair has one clockwise and one counter
clockwise airscrew.4.Electronic Speed Controller(ESC):-It’s a component that varies (and potentially brakes) the rotational speed of, or changes to the direction of the shaft of an electric motor. This (ESC) receives high-current, direct current (DC) electric power from an electric power source and sends high-current electric power to an electric motor. The ampere rating is 10A, 20A, 30A, 40A. and operating voltage between 7-14 volt.ESC has it’s own micro-controller which is controlled by Pulse Width Modulation(PWM) signal (1000-2000us)
5.Flight Controller Board :- It is a mother board of a quad-copter with it’s own micro-controller, gyroscopes and accelerometers sensor for flight stability.It has a special PID Algorithm for flight stability.You can add further modules like Bluetooth module, GPS for advancement.
6.Power Distribution board(PDB):-As the name suggests, a PDB distribute the power on your drone, and provides a neat and tidy way of connecting your battery to all of your ESC’s on your aircraft.Some multi-rotor frames has a power distribution board integrated into the frame, allowing you to solder the battery and ESC connectors directly onto the main frame of your drone which is very convenient.
7.Bluetooth Module:- This basically sets a wireless connection between your phone and quad-copter.
8. Arduino Board:- The Arduino is a micro-controller board originally was based on the ATmega328, supports wireless serial communication over Bluetooth.Operating Voltage-5v,Input Voltage 2.5-12v,Digital I/O Pins 14 (of which 6 provide PWM output)
9. Lipo Battery:-A lithium polymer battery is a rechargeable battery of lithium-ion technology in a pouch format. It’s a 3 cell battery connected in series with 11.1volt. of 25c,35c and 45c. It has high discharging rate, light weight but highly explosive and costly.
10. Lipo battery Charger:-
When buying a charger you should consider what Lipo batteries it can support.11. Lipo battery alarm:-
It detects when your battery is dying and sounds loud.12.landing gear:-
It is being used for landing the quad-copter safely in the ground. we can use rubber balls, sponge as shock absorber.
13.Wires:-American Wire Gauge (AWG) ,a standard based on the diameter of the wire chosen for RC models and quad-copter.It determines how much current should go though. As you might know wider diameter wires (thicker) can handle more current.
The most essential thing that you need is the Mobile app,which i’ll provide you all in my next article when i’ll show you how to assemble all these parts and make a flying drone.
TO BE CONTINUED