ISRO or Indian Space Research Organisation is the space agency of the India. Headquartered in the city of Bangalore, Karnataka. Although it was officially formed in 1969, ISRO superseded the erstwhile INCOSPAR.  Established in 1962 by the efforts of independent India’s first Prime Minister, Jawaharlal Nehru, and his close aide and renowned scientist Vikram Sarabhai. It is managed by the Department of Space, which reports directly to the Prime Minister of India.

ISRO built India’s first satellite, Aryabhatta, which was launched by then Soviet Union on 19 April in 1975. In 1980, Rohini became the first satellite to be placed in orbit by an Indian-made launch vehicle, SLV-3.

It subsequently has developed two other rockets: the Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle or PSLV for launching satellites into polar orbits and the Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle or GSLV for placing satellites into geostationary orbits.


ISRO sent one lunar orbiter, Chandrayaan-1, on 22 October 2008 and one Mars orbiter, Mars Orbiter Mission on 5th of November 2013 from Satish Dhawan space center using PSLV which successfully entered Mars orbit on 24 September 2014, making India the first nation to succeed on its first attempt.

ISRO is the fourth space agency  in the world after NASA, Soviet space program and European space Agency. It is also the first space agency in Asia to successfully reach orbit of Mars.